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2012/11/27

Household Demographics and Work Characteristics

1.       Age and Gender Structure

For the 29,450 individuals in the sample, table1 shows the proportion of different age groups. The children’s group constitutes 15.05% of the sample; the working-age group accounts for 68.6% and the elderly group for 16.34%. Those above 65 account for 10.65%. The average age of sampled population in CHFS is 38.37. The ratio of Male over female is 102.94.
                                    
Table1 The Structure of Age and Gender

Mean Age

Median Age

The Ratio of Age Group (%)

Child

Labor Force

Elderly

Total

Total

38.37

38.66

15.05

68.6

16.34

100

Male

37.66

38.08

16.38

67.79

15.82

50.73

Female

39.13

39.17

13.68

69.44

16.87

49.27

Ratio of Gender (Male/Female)

123.3

100.5

96.52

102.94

Urban

118.6

96.76

87.5

98.2

Rural

125.1

102.8

105.5

106.5

Note: The population of children is the number of people under the age of 15. The population of labor force is the number of people between age of 15 (including 15-year-olds) and of 60. The rest of population is considered elderly. The base of sex ratio is female population of 100.

2.       Education Structure

The CHFS data shows that there is still a relatively large group of people with elementary or under degree. Meanwhile, there exists a huge education disparity between the rural and urban population and across regions. People living in cities tend to have a higher level of education than those in rural areas, resulting in a higher literacy rate in cities. Those in the more economically developed Eastern region also have a higher level of education than those in less developed Western region.

Table 2  The Structure of Education Degree in Urban and Rural Areas(%)

Education Degree

Urban              

Rural

Illiterate and Semi-illiterate

4.23

14.51

Elementary School

9.88

28.81

Middle School

25.86

37.98

High School

18.84

11.07

Vocational School

10.27

3.09

Junior College

13.77

2.75

Bachelor

15.09

1.76

Graduated School

2.07

0.03


Table 3  The Structure of Education Degree in Region
(%)

Education Degree

Eastern                          

Central

Western

Illiterate and Semi-illiterate

7.9

11.93

11.87

Elementary School

17.97

21.86

24.44

Middle School

31.19

34.26

33.84

High School

15.23

14.64

12.47

Vocational School

6.82

5.82

5.34

Junior College

8.99

5.82

6.8

Bachelor

10.3

5.35

4.9

Graduated School

1.61

0.32

0.34


3.       Marriage Status

There are 4,273 individuals in the CHFS that are unmarried, accounting for 17.38% of the sample; 18,886 (76.84%) married; 72 (0.29%) cohabited; 20 (0.08%) separated, 324 (1.32%) divorced, and 1,004 (4.09%) widowed. There is a higher divorce rate of urban households than that of rural households, which indicates a less stable marriage relationship in urban area.

Table 4  The Composition of Marriage Status(%)

Single

Married

Cohabitation

Separated

Divorced

Widowed

Total

17.38

76.84

0.29

0.08

1.32

4.09

Urban

15.15

77.9

0.39

0.12

1.98

4.47

Rural

19.04

76

0.22

0.06

0.83

3.79

Moreover, figure 1 indicates that marriages tend to be most vulnerable for those at 40 to 50 years old.



Figure 1  The Ratio of Divorced People in Different Age Groups

4.       Work Characteristics

From the CHFS results, we can find that there is still a large population of labor working (34.18% of all) in the agricultural sectors.

Table 5  The Types of Employment (%)

Total

Urban

Rural

Employed by Others or Firms

49.39

76.46

36.23

Private Sector or Start-up

11.4

13.76

10.16

Working in Agriculture

34.18

4.39

48.74

Hired back after Retirement

0.12

0.31

0.02

Freelance

4.11

3.8

4.25

Other(Soldier or Volunteer)

0.8

1.27

0.58

 
Table6 shows some descriptive analysis of the wage, bonuses, subsidies, and income tax payment of the primary job held by the respondents. The mean for wage is 31,296 yuan with a median of 20,000 yuan. For bonuses, the mean is 5,019 yuan with a median of 0. For subsidies, the mean is 1,494 yuan with a median of 0. For income tax payment, the mean is 1,619 yuan with a median of 0. The percentage of people who has zero bonuses, subsidies and income tax payment is 68%, 80%, and 78% respectively. For those who also hold a secondary job, the mean for after-tax income is 8,215 yuan with a median of 4,600 yuan ; the mean for income tax payment is 156 yuan with a median of 0. Those who have a secondary job and also pay income tax for the job account for 4% of the sample. Based on the information of the primary and secondary jobs, we find that the mean of the pre-tax wage income is about 39,173 yuan with a median of 22,800 yuan; the mean of the after-tax wage income is about 37,778 yuan with a median of 22,800 yuan.

Table 6  The Income Information of Employee (Unit:Yuan/Year)

Sample

Mean

Median

Q75%

Q90%

Primary Job: Wage

4,846

31,296

20,000

33,700

60,000

Bonus

4,815

5,019

0

1200

10,000

Subsidy

4,719

1,494

0

0

2,000

Income Tax

4,210

1,619

0

0

2,300

Secondary Job: after-tax Income

175

8,251

4600

10000

15,000

Income Tax

171

156

0

0

0

Note: The income information of employed individuals does not include those with jobs within the agricultural sector.

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